Discovering Glutamine, eczema and digestion connection with so much more.
L-Glutamine is created by various suppliers throughout the world by the fermentation of a carbon and nitrogen source by microorganism fermentation supported by a small amount of minerals and vitamins as growth factors.
The various processes involved in the fermentation produce a broth, which is then purified and processed to remove undesired materials until the manufacturer has a crystalline powder.
The dominant manufacturers in the global market for food grade and pharmaceutical grate L-Glutamine are China, Japan, India, North America and Europe.
Glutamine and digestion
Glutamine helps our natural barriers function better. When our bodily Glutamine levels are depleted due to increased demand or insufficient intake of essential amino acid sources, gradually, over time we become more vulnerable to harmful microbial overgrowth, including those associated with Helicobactor Pylori and Candidia infections/overgrowth as well as other bacterial, viral and fungal infections we would otherwise be protected from.
Over time this can lead to compromised digestion, even with the most balanced and healthy diet we may have problems with adequate protein, mineral and essential vitamin absorption, including Iron, B12 and BCAAs, which even with supplementation, will continue to be inadequately absorbed and uptaken by our cells until the environment within our digestive tract is appropriate nourished and repaired.
In order to achieve this we need to address the cause, what occurred and when to trigger this gradual depletion and damage, when was it that our cells started not getting what they needed. By tracking back through all the contributing factors we can rebuild the strength and integrity of these cells, so they function again optimally. This continual process of repair is achieved by reducing systemic inflammation and returning to a condition where our body is able to uptake and eliminate material more effectively to promote healthy digestion, immunity, mood, sleep, skin and enable us to achieve all we want and need throughout our days, rest and recover.
Due to the compromised condition of the system, supplements, short term, may be vital in achieving effective recovery within a relatively short time relative to the duration of time it took for the biological functions to deteriorate.
Replacing depleted Glutamine may, potentially, help a leaky gut close. When the cells of the lining of our digestive tract become inflamed and damaged supplemental Glutamine has been shown to calm down this inflammation and support these cells in being more resistant to damage, thereby preventing potentially harmful substances getting through and triggering further inflammatory responses.
Glutamine and zinc effectively work together to keep the links of the protective chains of cells together by strengthening their cell walls so they are more resistant to damage and more effective as a protective barrier.
Glutamine and Eczema
As previously mentioned, Glutamine supplemention can support barrier function and reduce inflammation in compromised tissues, this includes internal and external skin.
Eczema in an inflammatory condition which affects our skin, but it is not a disease of the skin, it is a immune condition, which means the entire immune system needs to be addressed and supported. By enhancing barrier function within our digestive tract we are protected from inflammatory particles entering our system, and in turn these particles will not enter our circulation, our white blood cells will not be triggered to chase them. When we treat the cause the side effects are many and in the long term, a new ‘normal’ is established, conditions such as eczema do not need to a problem for us long term.
No nutrient works alone, interestingly human research has shown that a combination of glutamine, arginine, and beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate significantly increased collagen synthesis associated with the enhanced turnover of inflamed and injured skin recovering to become stronger and more resistant to inflammation. This is significant because the truth is, we don’t have enough human studies, it is an issue across the board with nutritional medicine sciences. We have many, many animal and in vivo studies, due to the huge volume of variables involved in how we eat and what we do, adequately controlled, randomized and ethical trials of a high standard are a feat to achieve.
There is a lot more to unpack about the topic of eczema and associated conditions which I will save for another post. If you have any requests or areas of interest worth questioning and exploring, please let me know and I will start exploring in order to prepare a post for next week.
My next post with delve into the following topics.
Glutamine and athletic performance.
Glutamine and healthy weight maintenance.
Glutamine and chronic illnesses.
Excepts about these topics can be found on my most recent Instagram post @samantha_jane_frost
As I mentioned on my Instagram post yesterday about Glutamine and Athletic performance, here is a list of my references which I discovered through exploring the Natural Medicines Database https://naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com/ and IM Gateway http://www.imgateway.net/ as well as from practitioner learning resources provided by BioConcepts.com.au Bioceuticals.com.au and Metagenics.com.au
I also read the blogs from a variety of peers and looked up the references to their statements. I looked at the quality of the scientific studies which lead me through a rabbit hole of discovering more full papers linking to topics, that whole process is hard to reference though.
I have put them in alphabetical order. Due to time constraints I have not invested in editing the format of every reference so please forgive the inconsistency here, if you know of an app or program that can save time on this please share with me because I have been doing this manually for far too long.
Antonio J, Street C. (1999) ‘Glutamine: a potentially useful supplement for athletes.’ Can J Appl Physiol; 24:1-14.
Bowtell JL, et al. (1999) Effect of oral glutamine on whole body carbohydrate storage during recovery from exhaustive exercise. J Appl Physiol; 86:1770-7.
Castell LM, Newsholme EA. (1997) ‘The effects of oral glutamine supplementation on athletes after prolonged, exhaustive exercise.’ Nutrition; 13:738-42.
Castell LM, Newsholme EA. (1998) ‘Glutamine and the effects of exhaustive exercise upon the immune response.’ Canadian Journal Physiol Pharmacol; 76:524-32
Dechelotte, P., Darmaun, D., et al Glutamine biosynthesis and the utilization of succinate and glutamine by Rhizobium etli and Sinorhizobium meliloti. Glutamine transport and human hepatocellular transformation.
Eelen, G., Dubois, C., Cantelmo, A.R. et al. Role of glutamine synthetase in angiogenesis beyond glutamine synthesis. Nature 561, 63–69 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0466-7
Fuentes-Orozco, C., Anaya-Prado, R., Gonzalez-Ojeda, A., Arenas-Marquez, H., Cabrera-Pivaral, C., Cervantes-Guevara, G., and Barrera-Zepeda, L. M. L-alanyl-L-glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition improves infectious morbidity in secondary peritonitis. Clin.Nutr. 2004;23(1):13-21
Furst P. New developments in glutamine delivery. J Nutr 2001;131:2562S-8S.
Haub MD, Potteiger JA, Nau KL, et al. (1998) ‘Acute L-glutamine ingestion does not improve maximal effort exercise.’ J Sports Med Phys Fitness; 38:240-4.
Holecek M.(2002)’ Relation between glutamine, branched-chain amino acids, and protein metabolism. Nutrition
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1999 Sep-Oct;23(5 Suppl): S33-7. doi: 10.1177/014860719902300509.
Klek, S., Kulig, J., Szczepanik, A. M., Jedrys, J., and Kolodziejczyk, P. The clinical value of parenteral immunonutrition in surgical patients. Acta Chir Belg. 2005;105(2):175-179.
Kusumoto I. (2001) Industrial production of L-glutamine. J Nutr;131:2552S-5S
Kusumoto I. Industrial production of L-glutamine. J Nutr 2001;131:255
Lin, M. T., Kung, S. P., Yeh, S. L., Lin, C., et al (2002), ‘The effect of glutamine-supplemented total parenteral nutrition on nitrogen economy depends on severity of diseases in surgical patients. Clin.Nutr. 2002;21(3):213-218.
Medina MA. (2001) Glutamine and cancer. J Nutr;131:2539S-42S
Mertes N, Schulzki C, Goeters C, et al. Cost containment through L-alanyl-L-glutamine supplemented total parenteral nutrition after major abdominal surgery: a prospective randomized double-blind controlled study. Clin Nutr 2000;19:395-401.
Miaomiao Wu, Hao Xiao , et al (2016) ‘Glutamine promotes intestinal SIgA secretion through intestinal microbiota and IL-13.’ Mol Nutr Food Res; 60(7):1637-48. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201600026.
Microbiology (Reading). 1998 Sep;144 ( Pt 9):2629-38. doi: 10.1099/00221287-144-9-2629.
Milan Holecek, (2002), ‘Relation between glutamine, branched-chain amino acids, and protein metabolism, Nutrition 18(2):130-3. doi: 10.1016/s0899-9007(01)00767-5. DOI: 10.1016/s0899-9007(01)00767-5
Nan Li and Josef Neu, (2009) ‘ Glutamine Deprivation Alters Intestinal Tight Junctions via a PI3-K/Akt Mediated Pathway in Caco-2 Cells’, J Nutr. 2009 Apr; 139(4): 710–714.
Nature. 2018 Sep;561(7721):63-69. doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0466-7. Epub 2018 Aug 29.
Neri, A., Mariani, F., Piccolomini, A., Testa, M., Vuolo, G., and Di Cosmo, L. Glutamine-supplemented total parenteral nutrition in major abdominal surgery. Nutrition 2001;17(11-12):968-969.
Neurochem Int.;47(1-2):19-30. doi: 10.1016/j.neuint.2005.04.003. PMID: 15916833
Nutrition. 2002 Feb;18(2):130-3. doi: 10.1016/s0899-9007(01)00767-5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. (2003) ’Rapid biosynthesis of N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine, an elicitor of plant volatiles, by membrane-associated enzyme(s) in Manduca sexta’, 100(12):7027-32. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1232474100.
Rohde T, Asp S, MacLean DA, Pedersen BK. (1998) ‘Competitive sustained exercise in humans, lymphokine activated killer cell activity, and glutamine–an intervention study.’ Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol; 78:448-53.
Rohde T, MacLean DA, Pedersen BK. (1998) ‘Effect of glutamine supplementation on changes in the immune system induced by repeated exercise.’ Med Sci Sports Exercise; 30:856-62.
Sacks GS. (1999), ’Glutamine supplementation in catabolic patients. Ann Pharmacother; 33:348-54.
Saum, Stephan H, et al (2006), Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of the Biosynthesis of Glutamine and Glutamate, Two Major Compatible Solutes in the Moderately Halophilic Bacterium Halobacillus halophilus, J Bacteriol; 188(19): 6808–6815. doi: 10.1128/JB.00781-06
Shabert JK, Winslow C, Lacey JM, Wilmore DW. (1999) ‘Glutamine-antioxidant supplementation increases body cell mass in AIDS patients with weight loss: a randomized, double-blind controlled trial.’ Nutrition; 15:860-4.
van Hall, G., et al (2000) ‘The effect of free glutamine and peptide ingestion on the rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis in man.’ Int.J.Sports Med;21(1):25-30.
Vierck JL, Icenoggle DL, Bucci L, Dodson MV (2003) ‘The effects of ergogenic compounds on myogenic satellite cells.’ Med Sci Sports Exercise; 35:769-76.
Wada N, Kurokawa Y, Tanaka K, et al. Perioperative nutritional support with beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, arginine, and glutamine in surgery for abdominal malignancies. Wounds 2018;30(9):251-6.
Wakana Ohashi, Toshiyuki Fukada, (2019) ‘Contribution of Zinc and Zinc Transporters in the Pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases’, Journal of Immunology Research, vol. 2019, Article ID 8396878, https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/8396878
Walsh NP, et al (1998) ’Glutamine, exercise and immune function. Links and possible mechanisms.’ Sports Medicine; 26:177-91.
Williams, J. Z., Abumrad, N., and Barbul, A. Effect of a specialized amino acid mixture on human collagen deposition. Ann.Surg. 2002;236(3):369-374.
Zwingmann C, Butterworth R. (2005), ‘An update on the role of brain glutamine synthesis and its relation to cell-specific energy metabolism in the hyperammonemic brain: further studies using NMR spectroscopy.
- Posted by Samantha Frost
- On 2020-09-25
- 0 Comments